Thursday, June 30, 2016

How are Multi-Layer PCBs Made?

I know how normal PCBs are etched, but every time I grab a magnifying glass and examine the edge of a multi-layer board I'm astounded by the precision that must be required during production. On top of that, some of them have buried vias and other such trickery, which must further complicate the process.

 How are these boards made?

In a nutshell, to make a 4-layer board, 2 double sided boards and a separator are laminated together. You can extend this idea to 6, 8, n-layer boards.

Amazing isn't it? A key to manufacturing multi-layer boards is the mechanical registration system which ensures layers line up with sufficient accuracy.

The Basic Steps of PCB Circuit Board CAM Production

Each PCB board is basically composed of an aperture, drill layer, circuit layer, solder resist layer, character layer, in the CAM350, each layer will be loaded in different color zones separately, in order to facilitate the operation. The following is the basic steps of PCB CAM production.

1. Import file

First automatically import files (file-->import-->autoimport) and examination data are complete, the alignment layers (edit-->layers-->align) and set origin position (edit-->change-->origin-->datum coordinate), the layer arrangement (edit-- >layers-->reorder) according to a certain order, the layer would be useless to delete edit-->layers-->reorder.

2, Treatment of drilling

When customers did not provide drill files, you can use converted into flash (utilities-->draw-->custom, utilities-->draw-->flash-->interactive) turn into borehole drilling for editing, utilities-->gerber to drill) aperture position;

Then inspect the smallest hole size, hole edge and the edge of the hole or slot minimum spacing (analysis-->check drill), the edge of the hole edge and forming minimum distance (info-->measure-->object-object) whether meet the process capability.

3, line processing

The first measurement of minimum diameter, line spacing (analysis-->drc), to see if they meet the process capability. Then the wire diameter compensation according to the thickness of the copper foil board type PC and substrate (edit-->change-->dcode), check the line pad has no offset relative to the drill hole (if pad has edit--> layers-->snap pad to, using the drill command; if drilling is biased the use of edit-->layers-->snap drill, to pad, pad ring) command line is large enough (analysis-->drc), and npth line hole, groove edge, forming edge distance meets the pad requirements of.Npth production line hole (edit-->delete). Then whether to cancel the DRC examination after the completion of the above lines and lines, and pad, whether spacing pad and pad meet the production requirements.

4,Anti welding process

Check solder and circuit pad matching (analysis-->drc), solder and line spacing, plates welded with the circuit pad spacing (line and soldermask copy to a layer, then analysis-->drc command to check this layer), preventing electrode from the minimum width, npth whether have sizes solder block (add-->flash).

5, Word processing

Check the text line width (info-->report-->dcode), height (info-->measure-->point-point), diameter hollow, text and line pad spacing, text and shaping of the edge distance, text and fishing hole or slot spacing, text and not eat tin PTH pitch whether or not to meet the requirements of the production. Ran after according to customer requirements add UL Mark and date code marking.

6, Work with contiguous edge processing

According to the specified contiguous contiguous edit-->copy, processing of the side. Then add AI hole drilling for editing, add-->drill hit), the positioning hole, optical, customer material number (add-->text), Yang Xuan material number. Need V-CUT to guide the V-CUT angle (edit-->line change-->fillet, if need to fillet with the following command: edit-->line change-->chamfer. Some of the also requires et chapter, V-CUT test points, broken drill hole, the second the drilling plates stay test line and pad, the identification mark etc..

7, Layout and process side of the production

According to the layout of the table on the layout of the layout, according to the production of standardized production process

8, The composite layer

peration: tables-->composites. according to the add increase a (name, bkg for setting the screen figure polarity (positive and negative), dark to multiply attributes (layer), clear negative attributes (reduced layer).

9, Output drilling and light drawing data

Cam finished recording the original film, the minimum line work piece size, line spacing and foil area (analysis-->copper area).

Learn more from China PCB manufacturer

Tuesday, June 28, 2016

How to Solve the EMI Problem of Multi Layer PCB

There are many ways to solve the problem of EMI, modern EMI suppression method includes: using EMI inhibiting coating, the selection of appropriate EMI suppression of spare parts and EMI simulation design etc.. This paper from the most basic PCB layout of PCB layer stack in the control of radiation EMI and design skills discussion.

Power Bus

In IC power supply pin near arrange appropriate capacity of the capacitor, the IC output voltage jump faster. However, problems are not hereto. Due to the capacitance is limited frequency response characteristics, which makes the capacity not in the whole band generation clean driving IC output harmonic power. In addition, the transient voltage of power bus is formed in a decoupled path across the inductor will form a voltage drop, the transient voltage is the main common mode EMI interference source.

Electromagnetic Shielding;

From the signal go line, good hierarchical strategy should put all the signal wire is placed in a layer or a plurality of layers. These layers next to the power layer and ground layer. For the power, good hierarchical strategy should power layer and ground layer adjacent and power layer and ground stratigraphic distances as small, this is, we talk about the "layered" strategy.

PCB stack

What stacking strategies help to shield and suppress the EMI following a hierarchical stacking scheme assumes that the supply current flows in a single layer, a single voltage or multi voltage distribution in the different parts of the same layer.

3 Applications of Industrial Robots in the PCB Industry

The rapid rise of the automobile PCB industry


Sunday, June 26, 2016

FR4 PCB would never be beaten down by FR1

Fr4 PCB is mostly used in pcb manufacture. Fr4 pcb is mainly used in double side pcb or multilayer pcb. The cost is much expensive than Fr1. Nowadays more and more prodcut turns to use Fr1. Do you think Fr1 would go to replace the Fr4?

Obviously , the answer is no. Fr4 is more advanced material in products. People would consider the usage of the product to choose the suitable material. Although the price is main factor to effect the choice, fr4 has its special usage in the pcb production. Fr1 is used in very simple products. Actually, fr1 can be only used in single layer pcb. If you look into the products you may find that the electronic is more advanced and many of them is above 2 layers. Now the requirement of high technical,high density is in the current world. So fr4 would never be replaced by fr1.

Fr4 pcb has the following advantage:

Good mechanical strength and excellent workability, good mechanical properties, abrasion,acid and alkali.

Tuesday, June 21, 2016

3 Applications of Industrial Robots in the PCB Industry

As is known to all, the industrial robot the earliest is applied in automobile manufacturing industry, robot technology development up to now, the applied range so widely, the automotive industry is still industrial robots using higher density of a industry. Relative to the automobile production in the process of welding, spraying, handling, etc., the PCB industry requirements of robot accuracy to more high and relatively high complexity of work. Here we introduced three industrial robots are used in the case of PCB industry.

1.scara robot used in circuit board coil detection process

Complete set of testing equipment currently on the market almost no multilayer coil short circuit, much of this work relies on manual work, PCB board large aperture artificial board will be on the test device and open testing equipment, small aperture PCB board manual holding equipment (probe) to detect each coil can be done with the use of detection equipment. The SCARA robot baiting and para placement, complete testing on the aperture board all coils; for small aperture board, using a SCARA device is fixed on the end of the implementation of the probe, decided to use is to detect each coil probe, our equipment is effectively avoided the manual operation for small aperture and aperture coil or missed. Can significantly improve the detection efficiency compared with manual operation, and avoid the quality problem caused by omission.

2. delta robot used in small circuit board product assembly process

The FPC mounted disk is generally the use of artificial one by one to pick it up and put it plastic disk inside. Due to the FPC soft and thin when picking up very convenient, even experienced workers to complete the work efficiency is very low. Delta800 coupled with a visual system can from the FPC messy heap qualified picked up and in accordance with the requirements placed into trays inside, the effect is not inferior to artificial. Its speed can reach 60 pieces per minute, can replace artificial disc sorting device, thus saving the valuable labor resources, reduce the cost of the enterprise.

3. 6 axis industrial robot used in AOI testing process

AOI scanning machines rely on traditional manual imitation version, version and board, a worker control two sets of scanning machines, the monotonous work every day, and just making circuit boards will be good exudes a pungent odor of bring certain harm to the human body, AOI scanning machine from the infrared light is a stealth killer, all of the worker's health harm, the use of multi joint robot instead of artificial board for two sets of AOI, a turning plate and the receiving board, each class can be completed and more than 700 PCB hard, comprehensive efficiency can reach 1 /min (including AOI scanning time machine).

Industrial robot with the advantage of its high degree of automation, more and more to be applied in industrial production lines, with the innovation of the industrial robot technology robot in the process of high-speed production, the same can be to ensure high precision, which makes the robot can make a difference in the PCB industry.

Further Reading:
PCB Circuit Board Fabrication Process Flow
Advantage of Metal Core PCB

PCB Wiring Principle

PCB board is based on the PCB circuit design, so PCB line layout becomes particularly important, the general layout of the PCB line needs to comply with the following principles:

1. According to the electrical performance of a reasonable partition, is generally divided into: digital circuit area (that is, afraid of interference, and interference), analog circuit area (afraid of interference), power drive area.

2. Complete the same function of the circuit, should be placed close to the place, and adjust the components to ensure that the connection is the most concise; at the same time, adjust the relative position between the functional blocks to make the connection between the functional blocks of the most concise;

3. For the quality of components should consider the installation location and installation intensity; heating elements should be placed separately with the temperature sensitive components, it is necessary to consider the thermal convection;

4. I/o driver as close as possible to the printing plate edge near the lead connector;

5. The clock generator (such as: crystal oscillator or clock oscillator) device should be as close as possible to use the clock.

6. In each integrated circuit between the power input pin and ground, the need to add a decoupling capacitor (usually with a good high frequency performance of the monolithic capacitor); circuit board space is more dense, but also in a few integrated circuits around the addition of a tantalum capacitor.

7. Relay coil to add discharge diode (1N4148 is ok);

8. Layout requirements should be balanced and orderly density, not top-heavy or a heavy head.

Strict adherence to the principles of PCB wiring is the basis for the design of the best PCB board.

Further Reading:  Types of PCB Boards

Monday, June 20, 2016

The rapid rise of the automobile PCB industry

Automatic driving and new energy car comes at a time when the hot market, driven by leading automotive PCB manufacturers full orders. At the same time, because of the strict audit of automobile industry chain, the stability requirements are higher, so automotive electronics with respect to consumer electronics.

In order to understand the current PCB industry development environment help PCB manufacturers and equipment manufacturers to adapt to the trend of development of the industry, enhance the competitiveness of enterprises, promote industrial upgrading, 21 to 23 June 2016, Nepcon West China of 2016 will be in Chengdu Century City New International Convention and Exhibition Center was held. NEW PCB exhibition the exhibition, will undoubtedly become the PCB of exhibitors and visitors a professional event.

Automatic driving and new energy vehicles to promote the use of a substantial increase in the amount of PCB car

With the traditional car after ADAS gradually to the automatic driving transition, and new energy automobile promotion, continuously improve the permeability of automotive electronics, car PCB is used more and more widely. It is expected that future with mature technology and popularization, to raise the level of the car it, various, more and more feature rich, practical, and by high-end type continuous to middle and low penetration.

Millimeter wave radar spawned a huge demand for high frequency PCB car

The automobile millimeter wave radar is in a high-speed development, expected future bicycle by the average number of millimeter wave radar will continue to grow, demand for automotive radar PCB is also growing rapidly. And high-frequency radar circuit on the PCB plate, the manufacturing process have higher requirements. Therefore, automotive radar PCB will bring higher value.

Because of the special working environment of automobile, safety and high current requirements, the PCB reliability, environmental adaptability requirements are very stringent. According to chin-poon industrial chairman Huang Weijin introduction, zero defect rate is a basic requirement for suppliers of international companies, it also determines the ability in vehicle field. Because the car with PCB PCB high barriers to entry, car manufacturers will not replace certified suppliers. Therefore, once the firm can smoothly into the international.

At present, in the western region of China adaptation domestic PCB industry consolidation wave, vigorously to undertake the transfer of industries gathered, in land concessions and preferential taxation, free of charge on behalf of the recruitment of eastern enterprises produced a great attraction, the PCB industry in the west of flowering momentum appeared. At the same time with Sheng electronics industry to digital, intelligent production technology needs Yu Jiawang, the western region is gradually growth for China's manufacturing industry competition.

The new iPhone Circuit Board will Introduce the Class Board Technology

Set of micro network news on June 20, according to Taiwan media reports, Apple may be iPhone substantial revision cycle extended from the current 2 years to 3 years, rumors 2017 launched a substantial revision of the models may make major changes in appearance, the OLED display screen, may also staying high performance motor to realize complex tactile vibration.

The extension of the revision cycle will have a significant impact on suppliers in Japan, Taiwan and other parts of Asia, as these companies are highly dependent on iPhone.

Wu Jian, chairman of Taiwan PCB manufacturers Huatong revealed that have large customers 2017 the annual new phones will change the class loading plate "technology, for suppliers bring new challenges, is thought to be referring to the apple.

Market had been rumors, apple is seeking can replace the existing HDI (high density circuit board) of the class loading plate "technology, in order to adapt to the smartphone adoption of SIP (system level package) trend. With the SIP is equipped with components of the increase in the number of over limit load of HDI, Apple hopes to further introduce" class load board material application.

Wu Jian says frankly, the global smart phone market size each year about 20 billion branch, is close to saturation, the future will not appear too big change, also won't have significant growth. In order to meet the needs of customers Huatong has begun to layout the load board production line, have the confidence to grasp the business opportunities.

On 17 Huatong shareholders meeting, Wu Jian said that because of the infrastructure in place, strategy is in the right direction, 2015 years of successful paid out beautiful transcripts, revenue and profit all over the past few years have considerable growth. Especially in smart phones, although revenue growth is not a special Torgovnik Bie Mingxian, but because yield increase, the contribution to the company profit is not small.

Huatong last year net income after tax 28.67 million yuan, annual growth rate reached 44.3%, conversion per share after tax net income 241 yuan, hit a new high of nearly eight years, the shareholders today will cash dividend per share allotment by 1 yuan     

Friday, June 17, 2016

The main advantage of using printed circuit board

Circuit boards, We also named PCB printed circuit board, also known as the provider of the electrical connection in the electronic components.It has a history of more than 100 years of development; The design of the PCB manufacturer mainly layout design; The main advantage of the circuit board is greatly reduce wiring and fitting error, improves the automation level and rate of productive labor.

With the rapid development of electronic technology, PCB circuit boards are widely used in various fields, almost all of the electronic devices are included in the printed circuit board.To guarantee the normal work of the electronic equipment, reduce the electromagnetic interference between each other, to reduce the negative impact of the electromagnetic pollution to human and ecological environment, electromagnetic compatibility design cannot be ignored.

The main advantage of the PCB manufacturer use the PCB as fellows:

1. because the graphics has repeatability, reproducibility and consistency, reduce the wiring and assembly errors, saved the equipment maintenance, debugging and testing time;

2. Design can be standardized, conducive to swap;Printed circuit board

3. Wiring high density, small volume, light weight, good for the miniaturization of electronic equipment;

4. Good for mechanization and automation of production, improve the labor productivity and reduce the cost of the electronic equipmen

5. in particular, FPC soft plate bending resistance, precision, better should be on High precision instruments. (such as camera, cell phone. The camera, etc.).

Printed circuit board manufacturing method can be divided into minus (subtraction method) and add (addition) two kinds big.At present, the large-scale industrial production is given priority to with minus the corrosion of the copper foil method.

Monday, June 13, 2016

About Wonderful PCB Manufacturer in China

If you are finding a professional China PCB manufacturer, Wonderful PCB would be the best for you.

Wonderful PCB Technologies Ltd (WDF PCB) was found in 1996. With its strong technical knowledge base, WDF PCB is a reliable PCB supplier from single layer to 28 layers PCB and from prototype to mass production.

As we know that the electronics world is developing fast. WDF PCB has been continuously improving our Flexible Led PCB facility and technology. We have 20,000 square meters for our factory, a workforce of over 500 highly trained workers and a production capacity of 40,000 one month. We innovate to meet the changing market needs and create the cost effective solutions to help make our customer more successful in their business.

In 2002, we established our HK division for a much better export business. With a solid foundation of customer support and a strong intellectual knowledge base, WDF provides a PCB solution to the most difficult requirements and strive for customer satisfaction
WDF is not merely a PCB manufacturer; it prides itself on the importance of being able to work with its customer’s technical and supply chain priorities to provide a solution. Besides PCB production, we help purchase components and do the assembly.

With the management concept of "people-oriented", WDF emphasizes the trainings on staff profession and technology, a better living and working environment for our employees, creating a strong business, sustainable management and contributing to the community and our partners

One of our values is Excellence. That is to achieve excellent organizational outcomes,. The second is collaboration. That is, as a part of a tea, we cooperate with, support and encourage everyone. The third one is Responsibility. We behave in an ethically, socially and environmentally responsible manner while taking responsibility for my actions. Then it is respect. We’re honest with all people at work, treat them respectfully and care about their wellbeing.

The mission of WDF is to deliver exceptional electronic-based products and services to our customers. We do our commitment to the community, the environment, and our own employees, combining to create loyal and engaged customers and continued growth.

Our leaders, as role model behaviors, give clear direction on mutually agreed goals to our staff. WDF sales use and develop their creativity and skills by working to achieve company success. All benefits our customers and makes Precision a great place to work.

We aim to promote customer trust and satisfaction by high-quality PCB product and service , competitive pricing, short sample lead time, on time delivery, Strong customer service, CAM engineering support. Hope to meet the expectations of our customers in quality, technology and value.

WDF is a leading PCB manufacturer, and recognized as an industry leader with global reach.

To know more about us, welcome to contact us as follows:

T:+86-0755-8622-9518 Ext. 643



Wechat/Whatsapp: +86 185 7153 5216


Sunday, June 12, 2016

IPC World Aluminum PCB Production Report

The world market for printed circuit boards (PCBs) reached an estimated $60.2 billion in value in 2014, growing just 0.7 percent in real terms, according to IPC’s World PCB Production Report for the Year 2014. Production growth in China, Thailand and Vietnam compensated for declining PCB production in most other regions,especially Aluminum PCB.Developed by a team of the world's leading PCB industry analysts, the annual study is the definitive source of PCB production data, indicating the volumes and types of PCBs being made in the world’s major producing countries.

The IPC report contains estimates of 2014 PCB production value by nine product categories and by 30 countries or sub-regions. Four categories of rigid PCBs, three categories of flexible circuits, and IC substrates are covered. The standard multilayer rigid PCB values are further segmented by those having microvia structures and those with non-microvia structures. The report also includes updates on metal-core PCBs, as well as regional trends and historical data on regional shifts in PCB production.

The data show that the worldwide rigid PCB market grew modestly in 2014, while flexible circuit growth was flat. Regional trends are also examined, including China's slowing production growth and the spectacular growth in the PCB industries of Thailand and Vietnam.

“PCB production is an international business and the landscape continues to change,” says Sharon Starr, IPC director of market research. “Companies based in Taiwan, Japan and South Korea, are responsible for more than two-thirds of world PCB production. These and other companies around the world are powering the impressive growth of PCB production in southeast Asia.”

Thursday, June 2, 2016

How PCB Board Manufacturer Control Quality

“Quality is the life of PCBs and technology is a source of strength for PCBs” as all is know. The pursuit for good service is Wonder PCB (WDF) principle of service. WDF has a good quality assurance system and high quality technical service team. High quality products not only in China but also in the world are highly welcomed. WDF has focused on the high-precision technology, stable supply of our production system. All of our products are carried out strict quality management, strict quality testing , relied on high-precision design in all processes, as well as many excellent trained personnel and sophisticated equipment.
1. Raw material test 
All of our raw materials must get through strict test before production. Sometimes, the raw material samples will be conducted to special tests to meet customer requirements in independent laboratories. All classified pcb material will be marked so that production can track the original source at any time.
2. Interim Inspection 
Each stage of our production is monitored by the mid-term test. Each stage of our production on the first items is tested. After completion of the survey is confirmed by the adoption of quality control manager, we can begin volume production. Each machine operator in the production process will conduct the testing. Inspectors will regularly check each machine.
3. End of the test 
All the documents are signed, stamped and certified by both parties,  the company can only work out the appropriate product database. Our quality control objective is to achieve zero defects in 100% of manufactured goods.
4. Environmental Protection 
We do not use certain hazardous substances for our productions. In recent years, restrictions on harmful chemical substances to the environment continued to strengthen the use of the law. According to EU (European Union) ROHS (the Restriction of the use of certain Hazardous Substances, Specific Restriction of Hazardous Substances), electronic products contain six kinds of specific prohibited substances, such as: lead, mercury, hexavalent chromium, cadmium, brominated flame retardants specific (PBB, PBDE). This is based on protecting the global environment from the start so that we can establish the behavior of corporate social responsibility, and, in the future the standard will not be limited to the public within the EU, it will gradually become a worldwide environmental standards. WDF promise that all products will implement the EU RoHS standards, occupational health and safety policy. We agree with the other requirements. For example, we reduce health and safety risks for social progress and offer well-being of employees to make their own contribution.

Wednesday, June 1, 2016

Guides on PCB board Copying

How to copy a PCB board? It seems quite difficulty, but here, you will get the answer.
Actually, copying a printed Circuit Board is not so trouble and will reduce your price on buying a new pcb.

1. Get a piece of PCB, record all the strength of the model, parameters, and location, especially the diode, the direction of the three machine, IC gap directionon the paper. It is best to use a digital camera to take pictures of the components location.

2.Remove all the deviceand the tin in PAD hole.Usealcohol to clean thePCB, put it into the scanner, start POHTOSHOP, screen printing surface in the mode of color and print out the spare.

3. Use water-proof abrasive paper to slightly polishTOP LAYER and BOTTOMLAYER until the copper film starts shining, put it into the scanner, start PHOTOSHOP,color scanning the 2 layers respectively . Note that the position of them in the scanner must be horizontal or straight trees, otherwise, the scanning pictures will be useless.

4. Adjust contrast ratio, brightness of the canvas so that there will be strong comparison of the parts with copper file and part without copper film.Then convert this figure into black and white, check if the line is clear or not. If not clear, repeat this step. If clear, save it with the format of black and white BMP, TOP.BMP and BOT.BMP.

5. Transferthe two BMP format files into PROTEL format respectively and input the two layers to PROTEL. If the pad and via position of the two layers can be coincided, it shows that the first few steps were well done.If there is a deviation, then the third step should be repeated.

6.Transfer TOP.BMP into TOP.PCB. Note that it should be transferred to the SILK layer, also the yellow layer,then you can draw the line in the TOP layer. Then you can put the components based on the drawing in step 2. When finished, delete the silk layer.

7.Import TOP.PCB and BOT.PCB in the PROTEL and combine them into one graph,that will be ok.

8.Print TOP LAYER, BOTTOM LAYER into transparencies (1:1 ratio) respectively by a laser printer. Put the film on thePCB and compare if there is any error. If no, ok, you will be accomplished.

Daily work of a PCB trader

 ShenZhen is a city with high pace. It is just like a program that everyone is doing his own part to make sure the program(city, country) can be functioned normally. Work, off work and work. From a macro perspective, it looks rigid and boring.However, when it comes to an individual, things is much different, every one from different field is leading a colorful and fulfilling life. Here I would like to introduce the daily work of a PCB trader.

What’s the most import for a PCB trader, of course it is the customer. So every detailed job a trader do is closely connected with the customer.

1. Search for customers and send developing email. 

From some business platform such as Alibaba and Global Source, you may get some inquiries PCB Manufacturer. However, that’s far from enough. In sales industry, there is a saying goes that as a International trader, it is your customer from any other platforms except for Alibaba and Global Source that proves your ability. So to increase your performance and show your ability, search for customers and send developing emails is a must. You can search from all kinds of platforms such as google, facebook, linked in, twitter and other websites. Only if you can find customer, any way is acceptable.

  2. Deal with inquiries and send quotation. 

After first step, you will have some inquires, they will ask for exact quotation. For a PCB trader, you must make sure they have gerberfile and inform you the quantity. If they can provide, then things become easy. Send gerberfile to engineer for technical data, share the bom list to purchaser to get a best price for electronic components. After that, you need to calculate the PCB price and combine it with component price, find a suitable time to send the quotation to your customer for PCB prototypes producing. The reason why I emphasis on suitable time is because of time lag from different countries. It will be much more useful if you can send the quotation when they’re on work. After that, what you need to do is to wait for reply and follow up in a timely pace.

      3. Negotiation. 

This is the most challenging job and I like it best. After your quotations, there maybe some customers that interest in your PCB, PCBA, or any others, they will reply you and keep contact with you and negotiate with you to get a best price. Based on my experience, the India like to bargain the most and most European customers would not like to do that. Sometimes you may feel boring and angry when a customer force you to price down, but most of the time you may feel excited and a sense of achievement when you win the fight.

     4. Production. 

When you win the price fight and get an order from your customer, you need to arrange the production and update the progress to your client timely. Besides, you need to confirm every detail with your factory and customer in case of any error. So you must be a careful person and at the same time good at communication. 

     5. Shipping. 

After production finished, you need to ship the PCB or PCBA. If your customer have his own shipping agent, it is easy, what you will do is just deliver the goods to the agent he specified. However if he don’t have shipping agent and account, you need to contact you own shipping agent to ship. Besides, for the goods with total value more than 5000rmb,you need to prepare the customs clearance.

     6. Feedback. 

Once your customers get the PCB, he may do some test to match his end product, if the your PCB can’t pass the test, you need to keep in touch with him and re-manufacture for them when needed. Only in this way can you have a good business relationship with your customer and they may place repeat order for you.